Peripheral arterial disease and ankle-brachial index abnormalites in young and middle-aged hiv-positive patients in lower silesia, poland


M. Czarnecki, J. Drelichowska, M. Karczewski, B. Knysz, W. Kwiatkowska, W. Witkiewicz, J. G. Siorowski, K. A. Ska, Peripheral arterial disease and ankle-brachial index abnormalites in young and middle-aged hiv-positive patients in lower silesia, poland, PLoS ONE 9 (12), (2014) . doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0113857
Czarnecki M., Drelichowska J., Karczewski M., Knysz B., Kwiatkowska W., Witkiewicz W., Siorowski J. G., Ska K. A.,


Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis and mainly refers to elderly patients, having a negative impact on their functionality and quality of life. The findings of previous studies in HIV-infected patients have shown that cardiovascular risk is higher and PAD occurs more frequently than in the general population. There are also contradictory observations. Much less is known about the ankle-brachial index (ABI) value in asymptomatic HIV-infected patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PAD and ankle-brachial index abnormalities as well as to determine risk factors related to the disease in a group of Polish HIV-positive patients.

Methods and Findings: One hundred and eleven young to middle aged HIV-positive subjects and 40 noninfected subjects were enrolled into the study. Resting ABI measurements were performed and cardiovascular risk was analysed as well. Subgroups were created according to the ABI values: low (PAD), borderline, normal, high and altered ABI. Symptomatic PAD was observed in 2 HIV-positive patients, asymptomatic PAD was not diagnosed. The ABI value is lower and more varied, in 22.5% of the study group altered ABI values were found. Six subjects demonstrated borderline ABI, and 15 high ABI, including >1.4. In the control group no low or very high values were reported. A relation between low ABI and cardiovascular family history and between altered ABI and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level was demonstrated.

Conclusions: In young and middle-aged HIV-positive patients, symptomatic PAD prevalence is comparable to that observed in the overall population. Among asymptomatic patients PAD is not reported. The ABI value in HIV-positive patients is more varied compared to the HIV-negative subjects; the altered ABI shows a strong relation with low HDL-C levels and metabolic syndrome.





The Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Geodesy

Institute of Environmental Engineering

Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences

pl. Grunwaldzki 24,
50-363 Wrocław

Project assumptions

The overall goal of the project is to develop an innovative multifactor mathematical model enabling monitoring of bath contamination used in the electropolishing process of austenitic stainless steels. This model will allow optimization and reduction of process costs and will have an impact on reducing environmental pollution during electrolytic polishing of austenitic stainless steels.

The final outcome of the project will consist in the development of a method of monitoring the gradual contamination of the electropolishing bath.


The team deals with research in the field of electrochemistry, wastewater treatment, monitoring and optimization of processes in laboratory and industrial conditions. The diverse experience of individual members of the IonsMonit team is its strength.



Project: “A pioneering model for monitoring pollution of electropolishing process baths (IonsMonit)” financed by the National Center for Research and Development as part of the Lider programme.